In practice and theory alike, the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has transformed the medical field throughout the past seven decades. While RCTs has since mid-20th-century improved clinical testing accuracy while reducing bias, various limitations have also been presented. The purpose of the following paper is to examine RCTs in terms of its scientific and political history. It is expected that past experiences using the method will offer insight regarding the complex nature of the testing method, as well as its medical, economic, and political impact.