Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease by Country Men Ages 35-74, 1970 and 1993 (Rate/100,000)
Presented slide shows that FSU countries, unlike many others, experience rise in the coronary heart disease death rates. The major reason for this tendency is the breakdown of public health system in the Former Soviet Union. It is rather amazing, however, that most of the countries of the world have demonstrated an rapid decline in CHD during this period. This has continued downward even until now.
USAAUST: Australia, CAN: Canada, CHN: China, E&W: England and Wales, FIN: Finland, FRAN: France, HK: Hong Kong, NZ: ITY: Italy, JPN: Japan, New Zealand, SING: Singapore, SCOT: Scotland, SPN: Spain
Dr. Ueshima, Professor and Chairman, Department of Health Science, Shiga University Medical Science, Japan
Screening finds people that are likely to have a disease or it looks for factors that are precursors to disease. Mammography, a special X-ray of the breasts, can detect breast cancers early in their development, when they can be easier to treat. Pap smears detect changes in the cervix that can be precursors to cancer. Screening tests can also be used to identify people that are at greater risk of having a disease, for example, cholesterol tests can identify people who are more likely to develop heart disease. In recent years, advances in molecular genetics have resulted in the ability to identify people who are susceptible to developing certain diseases, this will lead to the development of many new kinds of screening tests. There is always the concern with screening as to if finding an early precursor to disease may lead to false positive. A prime example of this is with Prostrate Cancer with PSA. It will detect certain cancers, but also has a high false positive rate. It is not clear if life expectancy is increase due to PSA screening
In the first half of the last century people were too busy trying to survive to worry about health as much we do today, much less about how we might practice healthier habits in order to prevent disease. Progress that did occur was brought about through the organization of unions in the workplace, legislatures, and public health ordinances. Toward the end of the century, in 1990, the Healthy People 2000 report made a call to work toward a culture that actively promotes responsible behavior and the "adoption of life-styles that are maximally conducive to good health■ (USDHHS, 1990). Since that time, there is more and more concrete evidence indicating that practicing healthy habits can significantly decrease our chances of developing chronic disease. Therefore, of all the health determinants that we have discussed, lifestyle factors are among the most controllable and influential factors influencing our health.
Author: Diane Wilson, USA
From “Lifestyle Factors and the Prevention Movement” www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec4231/006.htm