The 'timeline of statistics' was designed by Tom Fryer at Sparks Publishing Services.

Explore the time line of statistics since  450 BC  when Hippias of Elis uses the average value of the length of a king’s reign (the mean) to work out the date of the first Olympic Games, some 300 years before his time. then you will see 840 Islamic mathematician Al-Kindi uses frequency analysis – the most common symbols in a coded message will stand for the most common letters – to break secret codes. Al-Kindi also introduces Arabic numerals to Europe.

http://www.statslife.org.uk/images/pdf/timeline-of-statistics.pdf

The earliest writing on statistics was found in a 9th century book entitled: "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", written by Al-Kindi (801–873 AC). In his book, Al-Kindi gave a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages, this was the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis.

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